Research Papers:

International Issues in ICT & Biotech


ICT & General Purpose Technologies

A Time to Sow and a Time to Reap: Growth Based on General Purpose Technologies   Recommended!
Helpman, E. & M. Trajtenberg (1994)

Abstract: We develop a model of growth driven by successive improvements in 'General Purpose Technologies' (GPT's), such as the steam engine, electricity, or micro-electronics. Each new generation of GPT's prompts investments in complementary inputs, and impacts the economy after enough such compatible inputs become available. The long-run dynamics take the form of recurrent cycles: during the first phase of each cycle output and productivity grow slowly or even decline, and it is only in the second phase that growth starts in earnest. The historical record of productivity growth associated with electrification, and perhaps also of computerization lately, may offer supportive evidence for this pattern. In lieu of analytical comparative dynamics, we conduct simulations of the model over a wide range of parameters, and analyze the results statistically. We extend the model to allow for skilled and unskilled labor, and explore the implications for the behavior over time of their relative wages. We also explore diffusion in the context of a multi-sector economy.

Diffusion of General Purpose Technologies
Helpman, E. & M. Trajtenberg (1996)

The dynamics of a general purpose technology in a research and assimilation model   Acrobat Required
Nahuis, R. (1998)

Adjusting to a New Technology: Experience and Training
Helpman, E. & A. Rangel (1998)

Information Technology, Globalization and Social Development
Castells, M. (1998)

General Purpose Technologies and Surges in Productivity: Historical Reflections on the Future of the ICT Revolution   Acrobat Required
David, P.A. & G. Wright (1999)

Comparative Advantage and General Purpose Technologies
Chung, J. (2000)

The Production Recipes Approach to Modeling Technological Innovation: An Application to Learning by Doing   Acrobat Required
Auerswald, P., S. Kauffman, J. Lobo, & K. Shell (2000)

Population Growth, Technological Adoption and Economic Outcomes: A Theory of Cross-Country Differences for the Information Era
Beaudry, P. & D.A. Green (2001)

Do We Have A New E-Conomy?
Baily, N.M. & Lawrence, M. (2001)

How the Quality of Institutions Affects Technological Deepening in Developing Countries
Clarke, G.R.G. (2001)

Crisis and innovation in Japan: a new future through techno-entrepreneurship?   Acrobat Required
Whittaker, H. (2001)

Synching or sinking? The globalisation of software development
Heeks, R., S. Krishna, B. Nicholson & S. Sahay (2001)

Abstract: Global software outsourcing (GSO) - using foreign-based computer specialists to develop software - is big business. Many countries are involved, but India remains the leader. A hundred thousand Indian software professionals develop US$3bn of software a year for foreign clients (many of whom are listed in Fortune 500). How can those who commission and those who do GSO increase value and reduce costs? How do they interact?

Do We Have a 'New' Macroeconomy?   Acrobat Required
DeLong, J.B. (2001)

Productivity Growth in the 1990s: Technology, Utilization, or Adjustment? | Alternative   Acrobat Required
Basu, S., J.G. Fernald & M.D. Shapiro (2001)

New Economy Stock Valuations and Investment in the 1990s
Edison, H. & T. Slok (2001)

Wealth Effects and the New Economy
Edison, H. & T. Slok (2001)

Some Economics of Personal Activity and Implications for the Digital Economy
Galbi, D.A. (2001)

Technology dissemination and economic growth: Some Lessons for the New Economy
Quah, D. (2001)

Technology Foresight in a rapidly globalizing economy   Acrobat Required
Martin, B. (2001)

Productivity in the OECD Countries: A Critical Appraisal of the Evidence
Calderon, C. (2001)

Policy Learning and Public Sector IT: Contractual and E-Government Change
Dunleavy, P., H. Margetts, S. Bastow, J. Tinkler & H. Yared (2001)

Are ICTs the road to riches for the poor?
Heeks, R. (2001)

A General Purpose Technology at Work: The Corliss Steam Engine in the late 19th Century US
Rosenberg, N. & M. Trajtenberg (2001)

The creative response in economic development: the case of information processing technologies in US manufacturing, 1870-1930
Reinstaller, R. & W. Hölzl (2001)

Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical framework along "Classical" lines in which Schumpeter's concept of "Creative Response" is linked to a theory of induced innovation and the concept of technological regimes. We devote particular attention to the role of indivisibilities between factors of production. On the basis of this framework, we study the adoption of early information technologies, such as typewriters, calculators or Hollerith machines in US manufacturing in the period between 1870 and 1930. We show how the presence of a distinct bias in technical change in US manufacturing led to the opening of a window of opportunity for early information technologies, and how the presence of this bias influenced the technological search and adoption process of firms and how this found its final reflection in the rules and heuristics of the new regimemulation is found.

Technology in the Great Divergence
Clark, G. & R. Feenstra (2001)

You Say You Want A Revolution: Information Technology and Growth
Haacker, M. & J.H. Morsink (2002)

Information Technology in Asia: New Development Paradigms   Recommended!
Chia, S.Y. & J.J. Lim (editors) (2002)

Abstract: The information and communications technology (ICT) revolution that swept the world through the 1990s has impacted the economic, political, and social structures of countries throughout Asia. These have presented themselves both as digital opportunities as well as challenges. This volume presents a collection of papers by scholars on the new development paradigms afforded by this new technology, from the experience of the software capital of Bangalore to the policy dilemmas faced by transition economies such as Vietnam.

Hi-tech Innovation and Productivity Growth: Does Supply Create Its Own Demand?
Gordon, R.J. (2003)

Technology and the New Economy
Bai, C.E. & C.W. Yuen (2003)

Information Technology and Productivity Growth in Asia
Lee, I.H. & Y. Khatri (2003)

Cross-Country Technology Adoption: Making the Theories Face the Facts
Comin, D. & B. Hobijn (2003)

Elsevier New Economy Handbook   Recommended!   SURVEY PAPERS
Jones, D.C. (editor) (2003)

Abstract: This collection of original articles on the New Economy provides an authoritative and wide-ranging summary of its characteristics, the models it spawned, and the ways it continues to influence markets and decisions. With a broader scope than other volumes, the New Economy Handbook offers thoughtful and measured investigations of economic change in many forms, from financial, product, and labor markets to auctions, industrial organization, and international frameworks. It also seeks to define the New Economy through statistics, country and sector examinations, and economic history. Traditionalists who doubt the existence of the New Economy will see themselves in many perspectives aired here, while utopians will find their beliefs both analyzed and challenged. Timely and useful, this book helps readers look past economic turbulence to the larger promises and implications of the digital revolution. The New Economy Handbook offers the first thorough investigation of the New Economy. Its poignancy is even more apparent in the wake of the 1990s technology bubble. Articles share a format that encourages accessibilty, including an outline, glossary, and summary, and an extensive index adds utility. It will primarily serve reference users in business schools, economics departments, public and university libraries, special libraries, and institutions/agencies concerned with finance, trade, e-commerce, banking, and other regulatory, trade, and commercial activities.

The Case of the Missing Productivty Growth: Or, Does Information Technology Explain why Productivity Accelerated in the US but not the UK?
Basu, S., J.G. Fernald, N. Oulton & S. Srinivasan (2003)

Dissemination of Technology in Market and Planned Economies
Iacopetta, M. (2004)

Steam as a general purpose technology: A growth accounting perspective   Wiley Interscience Required
Crafts, N. (2004)

Are Technology Improvements Contractionary?
Basu, S., J. Fernald & M. Kimball (2004)

Neoclassical Growth and the Adoption of Technologies
Comin, D. & B. Hobijn (2004)

The Information Revolution and Developing Countries   Recommended!
Wilson, E.J. III (2004)

Abstract: In this book Ernest Wilson provides a clear, nuanced analysis of the major transformations resulting from the global information revolution. He shows that the information revolution is rooted in societal dynamics, political interests, and social structure. Using the innovative Strategic ReStructuring (SRS) model, he uncovers links between the big changes taking place around the world and the local initiatives of individual information activists, especially in developing countries. Indeed, Wilson shows that many of the structural changes of the information revolution, such as shifts from public to private ownership or from monopoly to competition, are driven by activists struggling individually and collectively to overcome local apathy and entrenched opposition to reform. Wilson applies his SRS model to the politics of Internet expansion in Brazil, China, and Ghana to illustrate the real-world challenges facing policy-makers and practitioners. Examples of such challenges include starting Internet companies, reforming regulatory laws, and formulating NGO strategies for dealing with the digital divide. Wilson identifies the tremendous possibilities for innovation and advancement in developing countries while acknowledging the structural, institutional, and cultural constraints that work against their realization.

General Purpose Technologies
Jovanovic, B. & P.L. Rousseau (2005)

Do Stronger Intellectual Property Rights Increase International Technology Transfer? Empirical Evidence from U.S. Firm-Level Data
Branstetter, L., R. Fisman & C.F. Foley (2005)

Gpt-Driven, Endogenous Growth   Wiley Interscience Required
Carlaw, K.I. & R.G. Lipsey (2006)

ICT Use in the Developing World: An Analysis of Differences in Computer and Internet Penetration
Chinn, M.D. & R.W. Fairlie (2006)

The World Technology Frontier   Ingenta Select Required
Caselli, F. & W.J. Coleman (2006)

World Technology Usage Lags
Comin, D.A., B. Hobijn & E. Rovito (2006)

Information Technology Adoption and Political Regimes   Wiley Interscience Required
Corrales, J. & F. Westhoff (2006)

Spatial Growth and Industry Age
Desmet, K. & E. Rossi-Hansberg (2007)

Optimal Technology and Development   Acrobat Required
Moscoso Boedo, H.J. (2007)

General Purpose Technologies and their Implications for International Trade
Petsas, I. (2009)

Technological Growth and Asset Pricing
Garleanu, N., S. Panageas & J. Yu (2009)

Why doesn’t technology flow from rich to poor countries?   Acrobat Required
Cole, H.L., J. Greenwood & J.M. Sánchez (2012)

Long-term growth driven by a sequence of general purpose technologies   ScienceDirect Required
Schaefer, A., D. Schiess & R. Wehrli (2014)

Misallocation, informality, and human capital: understanding the role of institutions   Acrobat Required
D'Erasmo, P., H.J. Moscoso Boedo & A. Senkal (2014)

Localized and Biased Technologies: Atkinson and Stiglitz's New View, Induced Innovations, and Directed Technological Change
Acemoglu, D. (2014)

Knowledge and Growth in the Very Long Run   Wiley Interscience Required
Strulik, H. (2014)

Why Doesn't Technology Flow from Rich to Poor Countries?
Cole, H.L., J. Greenwood & J.M. Sanchez (2015)

Do Poor Countries Really Need More IT? The Role of Relative Prices and Industrial Composition
Eden, M. & P. Gaggl (2015)

The Internet as a general-purpose technology: Firm-level evidence from around the world   ScienceDirect Required
Clarke, G.R.G., C.Z. Qiang & L.C. Xu (2015)

Is Co-Invention Expediting Technological Catch Up? A Study of Collaboration between Emerging Country Firms and EU Inventors   ScienceDirect Required
Giuliani, E., A. Martinelli & R. Rabellotti (2015)

Robots and humans – complements or substitutes?   ScienceDirect Required
DeCanio, S.J. (2016)

General Purpose Technologies in Theory, Applications and Controversy: A Review   Acrobat Required   SURVEY PAPER
Bekar, C., K. Carlaw & R. Lipsey (2016)

Secular Stagnation? The Effect of Aging on Economic Growth in the Age of Automation
Acemoglu, D. & P. Restrepo (2017)

Horizontal and Vertical Polarization: Task-Specific Technological Change in a Multi-Sector Economy
Lee, S.Y. & Y. Shin (2017)

On the possibility of automation-induced stagnation   Acrobat Required
Gasteiger, E. & K. Prettner (2017)

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Innovation & R&D

Innovation Systems: City-State, National, Continental and Sub-National   Microsoft Word Document
Freeman, C. (1998)

Is Public R&D a Complement or Substitute for Private R&D? A Review of the Econometric Evidence   Acrobat Required
David, P.A., B.H. Hall, & A.A. Toole (1999)

Should the Government Subsidize Supply or Demand in the Market for Scientists and Engineers?   Acrobat Required
Romer, P.A. (2000)

Innovation Policy and the Economy   CONFERENCE VOLUME
Jaffe, A., J. Lerner & S. Stern (ed.) (2001)

Intellectual Property Rights and International R&D Competition
Scandizzo, S. (2001)

Perfectly Competitive Innovation   Acrobat Required
Boldrin, M. & D.K. Levine (2001)

R&D and Technology Spillovers via FDI: Innovation and Absorptive Capacity   Acrobat Required
Kinoshita, Y. (2001)

Growth and North-South Wage Gap   Acrobat Required
Wang, L. (2001)   Acrobat Required

Perfectly competitive innovation
Boldrin, M. & D.K. Levine (2002)

The Lives and Death of Moore's Law
Tuomi, I. (2002)

The Progress of Science and Useful Arts: Why Copyright Today Threatens Intellectual Freedom
Heins, M. (2002)

R&D and Development
Maloney, W.F. & D. Lederman (2003)

Strategic Approaches to Science and Technology in Development
Crawford, M., S. Farley & R. Watson (2003)

Seventeen Famous Economists Weigh in on Copyright: The Role of Theory, Empirics, and Network Effects
Liebowitz, S. & S. Margolis (2004)

On the Timing of Innovation in Stochastic Schumpeterian Growth Models
Barlevy, G. (2004)

Organization and Inequality in a Knowledge Economy
Garicano, L. & E. Rossi-Hansberg (2005)

The International Dynamics of R&D and Innovation in the Short and in the Long Run
Bottazzi, L. & G. Peri (2005)

Diversification, Innovation, and Imitation Inside the Global Technological Frontier   Acrobat Required
Klinger, B. & D. Lederman (2006)

World Technology Usage Lags
Comin, D.A., B. Hobijn & E. Rovito (2006)

Implementing Technology
Comin, D. & B. Hobijn (2007)

International R&D Spillovers and Institutions
Coe, D.T., E. Helpman & A. Hoffmaister (2008)

International Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, and Technology Spillovers
Keller, W. (2009)

Gravity in the Weightless Economy
Keller, W. & S.R Yeaple (2009)

Microeconomics of Technology Adoption   Acrobat Required
Foster, A.D. & M.R. Rosenzweig (2010)

Organizing growth   ScienceDirect Required
Garicano, L. & E. Rossi-Hansberg (2012)

Financial development and innovation: Cross-country evidence   ScienceDirect Required
Hsu, P-H., X. Tian & Y. Xu (2014)

Why Don't Poor Countries Do R&D? | Published   ScienceDirect Required
Goni, E. & W.F. Maloney (2014/17)

R&D Policy and Schumpeterian Growth: Theory and Evidence   Acrobat Required
Minniti, A. & F. Venturini (2014)

International technology adoption, R&D, and productivity growth   De Gruyter Journals Required
Choi, S.M., D.T. González & P. Gray (2014)

R&D and aggregate fluctuations   ScienceDirect Required
Artuç, E. & P.M. Pourpourides (2014)

Human Capital and the World Technology Frontier   MIT Press Subscription Required
Madsen, J.B. (2014)

Immigration, International Collaboration, and Innovation: Science and Technology Policy in the Global Economy
Freeman, R.B. (2014)

Knowledge Spillovers, ICT and Productivity Growth
Corrado, C., J. Haskel & C. Jona-Lasinio (2015)

New Ideas in Invention
Packalen, M. & J. Bhattacharya (2015)

Cities and Ideas
Packalen, M. & J. Bhattacharya (2015)

Religion and Innovation
Benabou, R., D. Ticchi & A. Vindigni (2015)

Robots: Curse or Blessing? A Basic Framework
Sachs, J.D., S.G. Benzell & G. LaGarda (2015)

Innovation and Intellectual Property Rights in a Product-cycle Model of Skills Accumulation   Wiley Interscience Required
Chen, H-J. (2015)

Culture, Institutions and Democratization
Gorodnichenko, Y. & G. Roland (2015)

International trade and R&D spillovers   ScienceDirect Required
Fracasso, A. & G.V. Marzetti (2015)

Innovation, public capital, and growth   ScienceDirect Required
Agenor, P-R. & K.C. Neanidis (2015)

Growth Cycles in a Two-country Model of Innovation   Acrobat Required
Konishi, K. (2015)

Inflation, R&D and growth in an open economy   ScienceDirect Required
Chu, A.C., G. Cozzi, C-C. Lai & C-H. Liao (2015)

Is Financial Support for Private R&D Always Justified? A Discussion Based on the Literature on Growth   Wiley Interscience Required   SURVEY PAPER
Montmartin, B. & N. Massard (2015)

Growth and innovation in the presence of knowledge and R&D accumulation dynamics
Verba, M. (2015)

The Risks of Innovation: Are Innovating Firms Less Likely to Die?   MIT Press Subscription Required
Fernandes, A.M. & C. Paunov (2015)

Innovation, product cycle, and asset prices   ScienceDirect Required
Jinnai, R. (2015)

Aggregate implications of innovation policy   Acrobat Required
Burstein, A. & A. Atkeson (2015)

Innovation and growth with financial, and other, frictions | Published   Wiley Interscience Required
Chiu, J., C. Meh & R. Wright (2015/17)

Liquidity, Innovation, and Endogenous Growth
Malamud, S. & F. Zucchi (2015)

Insider Trading and Innovation
Levine, R., C. Lin & L. Wei (2015)

Imitation: A catalyst for innovation and endogenous growth   ScienceDirect Required
Collins, T. (2015)

Global Innovation Races, Offshoring and Wage Inequality   Wiley Interscience Required
Impullitti, G. (2015)

Innovation Allocation, Knowledge Composition and Long-Run Growth   Acrobat Required
Li, N. & J. Cai (2015)

Corruption's asymmetric impacts on firm innovation   ScienceDirect Required
Paunov, C. (2015)

Innovation, Inequality and a Golden Rule for Growth in an Economy with Cobb-Douglas Function and an R&D Sector
Welfens, P.J.J. (2015)

Unions, Innovation and Cross-Country Wage Inequality   Acrobat Required
Chu, A.C., G. Cozzi & Y. Furukawa (2015)

Optimal growth through product innovation   ScienceDirect Required
Lentz, R. & D.T. Mortensen (2016)

Patent claims and economic growth   ScienceDirect Required
Niwa, S. (2016)

Informality, Innovation, and Aggregate Productivity Growth   Acrobat Required
Schipper, T. (2016)

Quantifying the Effects of Patent Protection on Innovation, Imitation, Growth, and Aggregate Productivity   Acrobat Required
Bento, P. (2016)

Management as a Technology?
Bloom, N., R. Sadun & J. Van Reenen (2016)

Advertising, Innovation and Economic Growth   Acrobat Required
Roldan, P. & L. Cavenaile (2016)

Strategic R&D Commitment and the Gains from Trade   Wiley Interscience Required
Strategic R&D Commitment and the Gains from Trade (2016)

Persistence of innovation and patterns of firm growth   Acrobat Required
Guarascio, D. & F. Tamagni (2016)

Patents vs R&D Subsidies on Income Inequality   Acrobat Required
Chu, A.C. & G. Cozzi (2016)

Quality Growth: From Process to Product Innovation Along the Path of Development   Acrobat Required
Jaimovich, E. (2016)

The spillover effects of innovative ideas on human capital   Acrobat Required
Alpaslan, B. & A. Ali (2016)

Innovation Network
Acemoglu, D., U. Akcigit & W. Kerr (2016)

China as number one? Evidence from China's most recent patenting surge   ScienceDirect Required
Hu, A.G.Z., P. Zhang & L. Zhao (2016)

Bombs, Brains, and Science: The Role of Human and Physical Capital for the Creation of Scientific Knowledge   MIT Press Subscription Required
Waldinger, F. (2016)

The switch from patents to state-dependent prizes for technological innovation   ScienceDirect Required
Lin, H.C. (2016)

On the Cyclicality of R&D Activities   Acrobat Required
Mand, M. (2016)

International, intersectoral, or unobservable? Measuring R&D spillovers under weak and strong cross-sectional dependence   ScienceDirect Required
Mitze, T., A. Naveed & N. Ahmad (2016)

Growth through Heterogeneous Innovations   Acrobat Required
Akcigit, U. & W.R. Kerr (2016)

Comparing Persistence of Product and Process Innovation: A Discrete-Time Duration Analysis of Innovation Spells
Corcoles, D., A. Triguero & M.C. Cuerva (2016)

Patent Buyout in a Model of Endogenous Growth
Radhakrishnan, P. (2016)

How Destructive is Innovation?
Garcia-Macia, D., C-T. Hsieh & P.J. Klenow (2016)

China's Rising IQ (Innovation Quotient) and Growth: Firm-level Evidence
He, H., N. Li & J. Fang (2016)

Back to Basics: Basic Research Spillovers, Innovation Policy and Growth
Akcigit, U., D. Hanley & N. Serrano-Velarde (2016)

Human Accomplishment and Growth in Britain since 1270: The Role of Great Scientists and Education   Acrobat Required
Madsen, J.B. (2016)

The Impact of Institutions on Innovation   Acrobat Required
Donges, A., J-M.A. Meier & R.C. Silva (2016)

The Rise of American Ingenuity: Innovation and Inventors of the Golden Age
Akcigit, U., J. Grigsby & T. Nicholas (2017)

Human-capital spillover, population and R&D-based growth   De Gruyter Journals Required
Diwakar, B. & G. Sorek (2017)

From "Made in China" to "Innovated in China": Necessity, Prospect, and Challenges
Wei, S-J., Z. Xie & X. Zhang (2017)

Capital- and Labor-Saving Technical Change in an Aging Economy   Wiley Interscience Required
Irmen, A. (2017)

Contribution of R&D capital to differences in Tobin's q among Japanese manufacturing firms: Evidence from an investment-based asset pricing model   ScienceDirect Required
Suzuki, K. & R. Chida (2017)

Exchange rate undervaluation and R&D activity   ScienceDirect Required
Chen, S-S. (2017)

The Market Value of R&D in Emerging Economies: Evidence from India   De Gruyter Journals Required
Kanwar, S. & B.H. Hall (2017)

Entrepreneurial Status, Social Norms, and Economic Growth   Acrobat Required
Varvarigos, D. & N. Kontogiannis (2017)

A dynamic model of open source vs proprietary R&D   ScienceDirect Required
Tesoriere, A. & L. Balletta (2017)

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Technology Diffusion & the Digital Divide

Diffusion of Innovations Summary | Book   Recommended!
Rogers, E.M. (1995)

Abstract: Since the first edition of this landmark book was published in 1962, Everett Rogers's name has become "virtually synonymous with the study of diffusion of innovations," according to Choice. The second andthird editions of Diffusion of Innovations became the standardtextbook and reference on diffusion studies. Now, in the fourthedition, Rogers presents the culmination of more than thirty years ofresearch that will set a new standard for analysis and inquiry. The fourth edition is (1) a revision of the theoretical framework andthe research evidence supporting this model of diffusion, and (2) anew intellectual venture, in that new concepts and new theoreticalviewpoints are introduced. This edition differs from its predecessorsin that it takes a much more critical stance in its review andsynthesis of 5,000 diffusion publications. During the past thirtyyears or so, diffusion research has grown to be widely recognized, applied and admired, but it has also been subjected to bothconstructive and destructive criticism. This criticism is due in largepart to the stereotyped and limited ways in which many diffusionscholars have defined the scope and method of their field of study.Rogers analyzes the limitations of previous diffusion studies, showing, for example, that the convergence model, by whichparticipants create and share information to reach a mutualunderstanding, more accurately describes diffusion in most cases thanthe linear model.

Technological Diffusion Patterns and their Effects on Industrial Dynamics   Acrobat Required
Van Dijk, M., & O. Nomaler (2000)

Understanding the Digital Divide   Acrobat Required
OECD (2000)

Global Bridges - Digital Opportunities
Digital Opportunity Task Force (2001)

The Geography and Channels of Diffusion at the World's Technology Frontier
Keller, W. (2001)

Cross-Country Technology Diffusion: The Case of Computers
Caselli, F. & W.J. Coleman II (2001)

Policy Reform, Economic Growth, and the Digital Divide: An Econometric Analysis
Dasgupta, S., S. Lall & D. Wheeler (2001)

Bridging the Digital Divide: How Enterprise Ownership and Foreign Competition Affect Internet Access in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
Clarke, G.R.G. (2001)

Reaching Across the Divide: The Challenges of Using the Internet to Bridge Disparities in Access to Information
Miller, A. (2001)

ICT revolution: creating a southern info-underclass?
Skuse, A. (2001)

Abstract: Who are the winners and losers in the ICT revolution? What are the likely consequences of the slow development of ICT infrastructure in many developing countries? As globalisation deepens, what have we learnt about the economic growth and poverty reduction potential of new information technologies?

Second-Level Digital Divide: Differences in People's Online Skills
Hargittai, E. (2002)

IT: are the poor being left out in the cold?
O'Farrell, C. & P. Norrish (2002)

Reconceptualizing the Digital Divide
Warschauer, M. (2002)

Community radio - bridging the digital divide
Buckley, S. (2002)

Exploring the Future of the Digital Divide through Ethnographic Futures Research
Mitchell, M.M. (2002)

International Technology Diffusion | Published   Ingenta Select Required
Keller, W. (2002/2004)

Frictionless Technology Diffusion: The Case of Tractors | Published
Manuelli, R. & A. Seshadri (2003/14)

Regional Integration and Technology Diffusion: The Case of the North America Free Trade Agreement
Wang, Y. & M. Schiff (2003)

Connection discrepancies: Unmasking further layers of the digital divide
Davison, E. & A.R. Cotten (2003)

The Determinants of the Global Digital Divide: A cross-country analysis of computer and internet penetration | Alternative   Acrobat Required
Chinn, M.D. & R.W. Fairlie (2004)

Abstract: To identify the determinants of cross-country disparities in personal computer and Internet penetration, we examine a panel of 161 countries over the 1999-2001 period. Our candidate variables include economic variables (income per capita, years of schooling, illiteracy, trade openness), demographic variables (youth and aged dependency ratios, urbanization rate), infrastructure indicators (telephone density, electricity consumption), telecommunications pricing measures, and regulatory quality. With the exception of trade openness and the telecom pricing measures, these variables enter in as statistically significant in most specifications for computer use. A similar pattern holds true for Internet use, except that telephone density and aged dependency matter less. The global digital divide is mainly - but by no means entirely - accounted for by income differentials. For computers, telephone density and regulatory quality are of second and third importance, while for the Internet, this ordering is reversed. The region specific explanations for large disparities in computer and Internet penetration are generally very similar. Our results suggest that public investment in human capital, telecommunications infrastructure, and the regulatory infrastructure can mitigate the gap in PC and Internet use.

Who benefits from the digital divide?
Luyt, B. (2004)

Geography matters: Mapping human development and digital access
Birdsall, S.A. & W.F. Birdsall (2005)

Science and the diffusion of knowledge   ScienceDirect Required
Sorenson, O. & L. Fleming (2005)

Financial Development, the Structure of Capital Markets, and the Global Digital Divide
Yartey, C.A. (2006)

Five Facts You Need to Know About Technology Diffusion
Comin, D., B. Hobijn & E. Rovito (2006)

Technology Diffusion and Postwar Growth
Comin, D.A. & B. Hobijn (2010)

An Intensive Exploration of Technology Diffusion
Comin, D.A. & M. Mestieri (2010)

The Spatial Diffusion of Technology
Comin, D.A., M. Dmitriev & E. Rossi-Hansberg (2012)

Endogenous Growth and International Technology Diffusion   Acrobat Required
Waugh, M., C. Tonetti & J. Perla (2012)

Technology diffusion and growth   ScienceDirect Required
Luttmer, E.G.J. (2012)

Technology Diffusion: Measurement, Causes and Consequences
Comin, D.A. & M. Mestieri (2013)

Heterogeneous Technology Diffusion and Ricardian Trade Patterns
Kerr, W.R. (2013)

The diffusion of health technologies: Cultural and biological divergence   ScienceDirect Required
Hansen, C.W. (2013)

Innovation, Diffusion, and Trade: Theory and Measurement | Published   Acrobat Required   ScienceDirect Required
Santacreu, A.M. (2014/15)

Immigration and the Diffusion of Technology: The Huguenot Diaspora in Prussia
Hornung, E. (2014)

Financial Development and Technology Diffusion
Comin, D. & R. Nanda (2014)

Book Translations as Idea Flows: The Effects of the Collapse of Communism on the Diffusion of Knowledge
Abramitzky, R. & I. Sin (2014)

Zvi Griliches and the Economics of Technology Diffusion: Linking innovation adoption, lagged investments, and productivity growth   Acrobat Required
David, P.A> (2015)

Has the Internet Fostered Inclusive Innovation in the Developing World?   ScienceDirect Required
Paunov, C. & V. Rollo (2015)

On the Direction of Innovation   Acrobat Required
Squintani, F. & H.A. Hopenhayn (2015)

Technology Transfer and North-South   Wiley Interscience Required
Davies, M. (2016)

How might the South be helped by Northern technology yet harmed by Northern money?   ScienceDirect Required
Cheng, W. & D. Zhang (2016)

Inventor Diasporas and the Internationalization of Technology
Miguélez, E. (2016)

On vertical relations and the timing of technology adoption   ScienceDirect Required
Alipranti, M., C. Milliou & E. Petrakis (2016)

Does the digital divide across countries lead to convergence? New international evidence   ScienceDirect Required
Rath, B.N. (2016)

Distance to the Technology Frontier and the Allocation of Talent   Acrobat Required
Porzio, T. (2016)

The Global Diffusion of Ideas
Buera, F.J. & E. Oberfield (2016)

Culture, Diffusion, and Economic Development   Acrobat Required
Harutyunyan, A. & O. Ozak (2016)

Price Setting and Rapid Technology Adoption: The Case of the PC Industry   MIT Press Subscription Required
Copeland, A. & A.H. Shapiro (2016)

North-South FDI and directed technical change   ScienceDirect Required
Li, S-A., S. Pan & S. Chi (2016)

The Creation and Diffusion of Innovation in Developing Countries: A Systematic Literature Review   Wiley Interscience Required   SURVEY PAPER
Zanello, G., X. Fu, P. Mohnen & M. Ventresca (2016)

Distance to the Pre-industrial Technological Frontier and Economic Development   Recommended!   Acrobat Required
Özak, O. (2016)

Abstract: This research explores the effects of the geographical distance to the pre-industrial technological frontier on economic development. It establishes theoretically and empirically that there exists a persistent non-monotonic effect of distance to the frontier on development. In particular, exploiting a novel measure of the travel time to the technological frontier and variations in its location during the pre-industrial era, it establishes a robust persistent U-shaped relation between the distance to the pre-industrial technological frontier and economic development. Moreover, it demonstrates that isolation from the frontier has had a positive cumulative effect on innovation and entrepreneurial activity levels, suggesting isolation may have fostered the emergence of a culture conducive to innovation, knowledge creation, and entrepreneurship.

Demand-Pull, Technology-Push, and the Sectoral Direction of Innovation   Acrobat Required
Comin, D., D. Lashkari & M. Mestieri (2016)

Why Risky Sectors Grow Fast   Acrobat Required
Imbs, J. & B. Grassi (2016)

Technology transfer and spillovers from FDI in transition economies: A meta-analysis   ScienceDirect Required
Iwasaki, I. & M. Tokunaga (2016)

Technology Diffusion, Pareto Distribution, and Patent Policy   Acrobat Required
Kishi, K. (2016)

The Lion on the Move Towards the World Frontier: Catching Up or Remaining Stuck?   Acrobat Required
Ungor, M. & T.M. Harchaoui (2016)

The unilateral implementation of a sustainable growth path with directed technical change   ScienceDirect Required
van den Bijgaart, I. (2017)

To Augment Or Not To Augment? A Conjecture On Asymmetric Technical Change   Acrobat Required
Struck, C. & A. Velic (2017)

Reconciling Models of Diffusion and Innovation: A Theory of the Productivity Distribution and Technology Frontier
Benhabib, J., J. Perla & C. Tonetti (2017)

R&D tax incentives and the emergence and trade of ideas   Oxford Journals Required
Bösenberg, S. & P.H. Egger (2017)

Robots and Jobs: Evidence from US Labor Markets
Acemoglu, D. & P. Restrepo (2017)

Skill Premium and Technological Change in the Very Long Run: 1300-1914   Acrobat Required
Luo, R. (2017)

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E-Commerce & the Internet

Some Economics of the Internet   Recommended!   Acrobat Required
MacKie-Mason, J.K. & H.R. Varian (1994)

Abstract: This paper was prepared for the Tenth Michigan Public Utility Conference at Western Michigan University March 25–27, 1993. We describe the history, technology and cost structure of the Internet. We also describe a possible smart-market mechanism for pricing congestion on the Internet.

Economic FAQs about the Internet   Recommended!   Acrobat Required
MacKie-Mason, J.K. & H.R. Varian (1996)

Abstract: This is a set of Frequently Asked Questions (and answers) about the economic, institutional, and technological structure of the Internet. We describe the history and current state of the Internet, discuss some of the pressing economic and regulatory problems, and speculate about future developments.

Special Issue on Internet   Recommended!
McKnight, L.W. & J.P. Bailey (eds) (1996)

Abstract: The Internet has rapidly become an important element of the economic system. The lack of accepted metrics for economic analysis of Internet transactions is therefore increasingly problematic. This book, one of the first to bring together research on Internet engineering and economics, attempts to establish such metrics. The chapters, which developed out of a 1995 workshop held at MIT, include architectural models and analyses of Internet usage, as well as alternative pricing policies. The book is organized into six sections: Introduction to Internet Economics, The Economics of the Internet, Interconnection and Multicast Economics, Usage Sensitive Pricing, Internet Commerce, and Internet Economics and Policy.

Economics of Networks   
Economides, N. & D. Encaoua (eds) (1996)

Abstract: A special issue of the International Journal of Industrial Organization on the Economics of Networks.

Internet Economics: An Annotated Bibliography   Recommended!
Klopfenstein, B.C. (1997)

Information Rules   Recommended!
Shapiro, C. & H.R. Varian (1998)

Abstract: In a marketplace that depends so thoroughly on cutting-edge information technology, can classic economic principles still offer any real strategic value? Yes! say Carl Shapiro and Hal Varian. In Information Rules, they reveal that many conventional economic concepts can provide the insight and understanding necessary to succeed in the information age. Shapiro and Varian argue that if managers seriously want to develop effective strategies for competing in the new economy, they must understand the fundamental economics of information technology. Whether information takes the form of software code or recorded music, is published in a book or magazine, or even posted on a website, managers must know how to evaluate the consequences of pricing, protecting, and planning new versions of information products, services, and systems. The first book to distill the economics of information and networks into practical business strategies, Information Rules is a guide to the winning moves that can help business leaders-from writers, lawyers, and finance professionals to executives in the entertainment, publishing, and hardware and software industries--navigate successfully through the information economy.

The Economic and Social Impacts of Electronic Commerce: Preliminary Findings and Research Agenda
OECD (1999)

The AGB Global Action Plan for Electronic Commerce
Alliance of Global Business (1999)

A Quantitative Assessment of Electronic Commerce
Schukhnecht, L. & R. Perez-Esteve (1999)

The Internet Economy: The World's Next Growth Engine
Business Week (Oct 4th, 1999)

Weaving the Multilingual Web
Yergeau, F. & M. Durst (1999)

E-Commerce: Impacts and Policy Challenges   Acrobat Required
Coppel, J. (2000)

The Effects of Business-to-Business E-Commerce on Transaction Costs
Garicano, L. & S.N. Kaplan (2000)

Electronic Commerce in Developing Countries: Issues for Domestic Policy and WTO Negotiations   Acrobat Required
Mann, C.L. (2000)

Transatlantic Issues in Electronic Commerce
Mann, C.L. (2000)

Dot Coms and Productivity in the Internet Economy
Whinston, A., A. Barua, J. Shutter, B. Wilson & J. Pinnel 2001

January 2001 Internet Economy Indicators   Acrobat Required
Whinston, A., A. Barua, J. Shutter, B. Wilson & J. Pinnel 2001

Internet Capitalist   Acrobat Required
SG Cowen Research Team (2001)

Pricing, Agents, Perceived Value and the Internet
Bradford, P.G., H.E. Brown & P.M. Saunders (2001) http://www.nber.org/books/innovation2/bresnahan5-14-01.pdf

Prospects for an Information Technology-Led Productivity Surge
Bresnahan, T.F. (2001)

NAIS Interim Report
NGO & Academic ICANN Study Group (2001)

Abstract: In preparation for the upcoming ICANN meeting in Stockholm, NAIS has released its Interim Report on last year's At Large election and on the future of the public role in ICANN. The full Interim Report includes detailed regional analyses of the 2000 election.

E-Commerce Web Queries: Excite and Ask Jeeves Study
Spink, A. & O. Gunar (2001)

Abstract: Web queries are a key process in e-commerce. Web queries are a primary means for translating people's business product, service and information needs for e-commerce. This paper reports a study of business related queries submitted to the Excite and Ask Jeeves Web search services. We sampled a log of 10,000 Excite queries and 10,000 Ask Jeeves question format queries from 20 December 1999 to examine the business queries. Findings include: (1) business queries often include more search terms, are less modified, lead to fewer Web pages viewed, and include less advanced search features, than non-business queries; (2) company or product name queries were the most common form of business; and, (3) Ask Jeeves business queries in question form were largely limited to the format "Where can I buy ..." or the request "I want to buy ...". The study provides insights into the beginnings of e-commerce Web searching.

Risks of the Passport Single Signon Protocol
Kormann, D.P. & A.D. Rubin (2001)

Abstract: Passport is a protocol that enables users to sign onto many different merchants' web pages by authenticating themselves only once to a common server. This is important because users tend to pick poor (guessable) user names and passwords and to repeat them at different sites. Passport is notable as it is being very widely deployed by Microsoft. At the time of this writing, Passport boasts 40 million consumers and more than 400 authentications per second on average. We examine the Passport single signon protocol, and identify several risks and attacks. We discuss a flaw that we discovered in the interaction of Passport and Netscape browsers that leaves a user logged in while informing him that he has successfully logged out. Finally, we suggest several areas of improvement.

The Internet's Dilemma: What Good Is the Stupid Network If the Other Guys Own It?
Cook, G. (2001)

Protecting Intellectual Property and Regulating MP3: A First Amendment Trojan Horse?
Schmidt, D.E amp; E.W. Crowder (2001)

Electronic Finance: Reshaping the Financial Landscape Around the World   Acrobat Required
Claessens, S., T. Glaessner & D. Klingebiel (2001)

E-Finance in Emerging Markets: Is Leapfrogging Possible?   Acrobat Required
Claessens, S., T. Glaessner & D. Klingebiel (2001)

Re-engineering Scientific Credit in the Era of the Globalized Information Economy
Mirowski, P. (2001)

The Economics of Software Distribution over the Internet Revisited
Ilan, Y. (2001)

DotCom Mania: The Rise and Fall of Internet Stock Prices
Ofek, E. & M. Richardson (2001)

Empowering the Customer or Empowering the Telco? Betting Your Company's Future on Your Understanding of the Right Mix of Technology, Economics and Policy
Cook Report (2002)

Globalization of Information: Intellectual Property Law Implications
Nayyer, K. (2002)

Self-Selection Strategies for Information Goods
Dedeke, A. (2002)

The Internet in India and China   Recommended!
Press, L., W. Foster, P. Wolcott & W. McHenry (2002)

Abstract: This article compares the diffusion of the Internet in China and India. Using a six-dimension framework for characterizing the state of the Internet in a nation, we observe that, while both nations have made significant progress since our last comparison (in 1999), China enjoys a substantial lead over India. We also examine determinants of Internet diffusion. We find that the Chinese Internet has benefited from economic and trade reform begun in the late 1980s, a strong government commitment to the Internet, complementary human and capital resources, etc. The two nations have very different governments and policies, leading to differing approaches to the introduction of telecommunication competition and infrastructure development. China has pursued a strategy of competition among government-owned organizations while India has set policy via recommendations of publicly visible task forces. It remains to be seen whether India's relatively transparent and market driven approach to Internet policy (and access) will prove effective in the long run. India and China have approximately 40 percent of the world population, and most of their inhabitants live in rural villages that lack basic telephone service. If the Internet is to succeed in raising the level of human development and curtailing migration to teeming urban centers, it must succeed in India and China. What we learn there may enable us to provide communication and information to the world's 1.5 million unconnected villages.

Poor Connections: Trouble on the Internet Frontiers
RAND (2002)

Abstract: Numerous obstacles keep the information revolution from spreading unfettered to the furthest reaches of the globe. RAND researchers have looked at four regions where the "information superhighway" has hit roadblocks: China, Russia, Latin America, and parts of the Middle East. The researchers map the obstacles unique to each region and, where possible, point the way toward potentially overcoming them.

The Global Internet Economy   Recommended!
Kogut, B. (editor) (2003)

Abstract: By 2002, all but a handful of countries were connected to the Internet. The intertwining of the Internet and the globalization of finance, corporate governance, and trade raises questions about national models of technology development and property rights. The sudden ability of hundreds of millions of users to gain access to a global communication infrastructure spurred the creation of new firms and economic opportunities. The Internet challenged existing institutions and powerful interests: Technology was global, but its economic and business development was molded in the context of prevailing national institutions. Comparing the experiences of seven countries--France, Germany, India, Japan, Sweden, South Korea, and the United States--this book analyzes the rise of the Internet and its impact on changing national institutions. Each country chapter describes how the Internet developed, evaluates the extent to which the Silicon Valley model was adopted, and suggests why certain sectors and technologies developed faster than others. The book also analyzes specific Internet sectors and regulations across countries. It shows that the Internet's effects are more evolutionary than revolutionary. At the same time, the impact of broad cultural change on entrepreneurial aspirations is clearly visible in certain nations, especially India and Sweden.

Electronic citizenship and global social movements
Tsaliki, L. (2003)

The Global Internet Economy
Kogut, B. (editor) (2003)

Regulation and Internet Use in Developing Countries
Wallsten, S. (2003)

The Internet in Developing Nations: Grand Challenges
Press, L. (2004)

Cons in the panopticon: Anti-globalization and cyber-piracy
Rajagopal, I. & N. Bojin (2004)

The Economics of the Internet Backbone   Recommended!
Economides, N. (2004)

Abstract: This paper discusses the economics of the Internet backbone. The author discusses competition on the Internet backbone as well as relevant competition policy issues. In particular, he shows how public protocols, ease of entry, very fast network expansion, connections by the same Internet Service Provider (“ISP”) to multiple backbones (ISP multi-homing), and connections by the same large web site to multiple ISPs (customer multi-homing) enhance price competition and make it very unlikely that any firm providing Internet backbone connectivity would find it profitable to degrade or sever interconnection with other backbones in an attempt to monopolize the Internet backbone.

Diffusion of the Internet: a cross-country analysis
Andres, L., D. Cuberes, M.A. Diouf & T. Serebrisky (2007)

Economies of the Internet
Jarrett, K. & D.E. Wittkower (2016)

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Electronic Money

Monetary Policy in a World Without Money
Woodford, M. (2000)

Decoupling at the Margin: The Threat to Monetary Policy from the Electronic Revolution in Banking
Friedman, B.M. (2000)

Offshore E-Money Issuers and Monetary Policy
Krueger, M. (2001)

Currency of the Net - e-Money : potential untapped
Dasot, P. (2001)

Abstract: The paper aims to unravel the future implications of digitized money, i.e. e-Money. The Internet revolution has not left the financial sector untouched. e-Money shall be its fallout. The paper explores the impact of e-Money envisaged on businesses and monetary transactions as a whole. The infinite time divisibility of currency on the net shall help e-Money acquire a truly universal character and shall make it the driver of the global e- economy. This would also considerably affect the control functions of the Central Banks.

Digital Finance
Grabbe, J.O. (2001)

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Biotechnology

Technology and Economic Benefits of Biotechnology
McGloughlin, M. (1999)

Economic Issues in Agricultural Biotechnology
Various authors (U.S. Dept of Agriculture) (2001)

Human Genome Special Issue
Science Feb 16, 2001

Are Intellectual Property Rights Stifling Agricultural Biotechnology in Developing Countries?
Pardey, P.G., B.D. Wright & C. Nottenburg (2001)

Abstract: The report discusses the effects of intellectual property rights on the use of biotechnology in developing countries. It also gives insight on how production and trade patterns affect intellectual property rights and how they will change with the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property.

Commercializing Knowledge: University Science, Knowledge Capture, and Firm Performance in Biotechnology
Zucker, L.G., M.R. Darby & J.S. Armstrong (2001)

The Future of Genetically Modified Crops: Lessons from the Green Revolution   Recommended!   Acrobat Required
Wu, F. & W. Butz (2004)

Abstract: Concern about supplying sufficient food for the Earth’s population has concerned humankind since antiquity, and has been the focus of commentary from such notables as Thomas Malthus and countless others. Most recently, there has been growing concern about the so-called “Gene Revolution”, in which “genetically modified (GM) crops are tailored to address chronic agricultural problems in certain regions of the world.” Concern over this question has led the RAND organization to sponsor this 116-page monograph that “investigates the circumstances and processes that can induce and sustain this new agricultural revolution." Authored by Felicia Wu and William Butz, this document contains chapters on the 20th century’s “Green Revolution” and “Lessons for the Gene Revolution from the Green Revolution". Throughout the work, the authors also weave a insightful narrative that assesses the agricultural, technological, sociological, and political differences between these two different movements.

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